Sounds of all languages fall under two categories: Consonants and Vowels.
Consonants are produced with some form of restriction or closing in the vocal tract that hinders the air flow from the lungs. consonants are classified according to where in the vocal tract the airflow has been restricted. This is also known as places of articulation.
Places of articulation
Movement of the tongue and lips can create these constrictions and by forming the oral cavity in different ways, different sounds can be produced.
when producing a [b], [p] or [m] articulation is done by bringing both lips together.
[f] and [v] are also used with the lips. They however are also articulated by touching the bottom lip to the upper teeth.
[θ] and [ð] these sounds are both spelled as “th”. they are pronounced by inserting the tip of the tongue between the teeth. (θ as in think) (ð as in thy)
[t][d][n][s][z][l][r] these seven sounds are produced in many ways where the tongue is raised towards the alveolar ridge.
“Happy,” I muttered, trying to pin the word down. But it is one of those words like Love, that I never quite understood. Most people who deal in words don’t have much faith in them and I am no exception—especially the big ones like Happy and Love and Honest and Strong. They are too elusive and far too relative when you compare them to sharp, mean little words like Punk and Cheap and Phony. I feel at home with these, because they’re scrawny and easy to pin, but the big ones are tough and it takes either a priest of a fool to use them with any confidence.”—Hunter S. Thompson, The Rum Diaries (currently reading)